The history of Pakistan traces back to the beginnings of human life in South Asia. Pakistan is home to the Indus Valley civilization, which is amongst the oldest in the world. Prior to the 1900's, the area of Pakistan was where Muslims ruled over Central and Southern Asia for over 300 years. Today, Pakistan is made up of people from various races including Arabs from after the Islamic expeditions, Persians from Bukhara and Samarkand, Turks from Central Asia and the native Sindhus who were converted to Islam.
Pakistan is one of those few countries in the world which has every kind of geological structure. It has the sea, desert (Sindh & Punjab), green mountains (North West Provice), dry mountains (Balochistan), mountains covered with ice, rivers, rich land to cultivate (Punjab & Sindh), water resources, water falls, forests etc. The North West Frontier Province and Gilgit-Baltistan contain the mountain ranges of the Himalayas, the Karakoram, and the Hindu Kush. Pakistan's highest point is K2, at 8,611 meters, which is the second highest peak in the world, yet one of, if not the toughest peak to try and scale and return back to base camp with your heart still beating. The Punjab province is a flat, alluvial plain whose rivers eventually join the Indus River and flow south to the Arabian Sea. Sindh lies between the Thar Desert the Rann of Kutch to the east, and the Kirthar range to the west. The Balochistan Plateau is arid and surrounded by dry mountains. Pakistan experiences frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe, especially in north and west. And in the northwestern part of Pakistan, the Taliban has leaked over from Afghanistan in the post 9/11 years. They have run campaigns to try and rule over the lawless areas of the country, successfully doing so for a while before the Pakistan military caught on and spit some game their way. Travel for Westerners, especially Americans, in this area is inadvisable as you might just be paying for a nice little weekend ransom on your vacation.
The eastern border with India is also a highly charged, tension filled area. The two sides have been going at it like a bad divorce since the partitioning of India which created the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The Hindu Kush, while one of the most beautiful, awe-inspiring pieces of earth this side of reality, yet surprisingly un-cultivatable, or livable with its high ceiling averaging around 15,000 feet above sea level, has been raged over between the two countries since 1947, leading to both countries to shed absurd amounts of blood over the land, and even a race to build a nuclear weapon to show which country has the biggest balls. Think North and South Korea levels of insanity over nothing, but with at twist of curry and a dust storm or two.